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Il Giornale di Chirurgia

Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative osteomyelitis: a 10-year study

Original Article, 284 - 290
doi: 10.11138/gchir/2018.39.5.284
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Abstract
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Aim. Few series of osteomyelitis due to multi-drug (MDR) or extensively-drug resistant (XDR) gram-negative bacteria exist. A retrospective study of MDR and XDR gram-negative osteomyelitis cases was performed, aiming to investigate causative organisms, proper surgical and medical management, as well as outcome.
Patients and methods. All patients, treated at the University hospital of Crete between 2007 and 2016 for acute osteomyelitis, due to MDR or XDR gram-negative pathogens were evaluated.
Results. A total of 14 patients (8 males) were identified with a mean age of 50.6 years. Five Acinetobacter baumanii cases, 3 XDR and 2 MDR, were found. Furthermore, 3 MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae and 3 MDR Enterobacter cloacae isolates were identified. Additionally, 2 MDR Escherichia coli, as well as 2 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 XDR and 1 MDR, were isolated. One case of Roseomonas gilardii was also identified. In 5 cases the same pathogen was also isolated from blood. Five out of the 14 patients were smokers, 6 were suffering severe injury, 4 had diabetes-mellitus, 2 chronic renal disease and 2 were obese.
Most causative organisms had hospital origin. All patients received first line empirical combination antimicrobial treatment, proven effective in 4. Thirteen patients were also subjected to surgical treatment.
The study included mainly young individuals, most likely due to the high incidence of traffic accidents involving young adults in Crete.
Conclusions. Antimicrobial regimens are important supplements to surgical treatment of acute osteomyelitis. However, due to emergence of resistant microorganisms, compliance with strict rules of antimicrobial strategy is of utmost importance

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