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Three-trocar laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anesthesia in a patient with asthma

Methods, Techniques, Drugs, 188 - 190
doi: 10.11138/gchir/2018.39.3.188
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Abstract
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Introduction. Laparoscopy is perceived as the state-of-the-art technique for a wide variety of operations but is contraindicated by comorbidities such as respiratory diseases. We present the case of a patient affected by asthma who underwent a successful three-trocar low-pressure pneumoperitoneum under spinal anesthesia.
Case report. A 58 year-old male with symptomatic gallstones had partly-controlled asthma and respiratory allergies. Potential bronchospasm was avoided by a less invasive laparoscopic technique. Under spinal anesthesia open pneumoperitoneum was achieved at the umbilicus.
Two more trocars were inserted. A cholecystectomy was performed in 90 minutes keeping the patient in a supine position and the pneumopneumoperitoneum at 8 mmHg. The post-operative course was uneventful. Discharge to home occurred on day two.
discussion. Laparoscopy is contraindicated in the presence of hemodynamic instability and inability of the patient to tolerate laparoscopic surgery. Asthma is caused by bronchoconstriction from a myriad possible stimuli requiring a specific anesthetic plan. Spinal anesthesia under low pressure pneumoperitoneum is a safe alternative to general anesthesia in high risk candidates. In experienced hand, a three-trocar cholecystectomy is safe and feasible.
Conclusion. Our patient represented a challenging case due to a partly-controlled asthma. Bronchospasm under general anesthesia was prevented by spinal anesthesia to keep a spontaneous physiologic respiration, irrigation of the right subdiaphragmatic surface with lidocaine to control right shoulder pain, safe dissection by three trocars, a pneumoperitoneum at 8 mmHg, the supine position to prevent significant physiologic changes and minimize diaphragmatic irritation.

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    doi: 10.11138/gchir/2018.39.3.188
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