Athletic pubalgia presents with groin and/or pubic pain mainly in athletes. The purpose of this review is to analyze, by evaluating current literature, the clinical examination and differential diagnosis of athletic pubalgia, in an effort to better understand this clinical entity. Diagnosis is challenging due to the anatomical complexity of the groin area, the biomechanics of the pubic Romasymphysis region and the large number of potential sources of groin pain. Clinical examination and medical history are of utmost importance. Differential diagnosis includes intra-and-extra-articular hip and intra-abdominal pathology, as well as non-myoskeletal disorders, such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), acetabular labral tears, osteitis pubis, adductor muscles injuries and true inguinal hernia. A thorough clinical examination should be performed in such cases, including the “Resisted sit-up” and the “Single or Bilateral Resisted Leg Adduction” test. Regarding imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed when athletic pubalgia is suspected, especially in athletes. Other imaging techniques, such as plain radiographs and ultrasonography may add to the diagnostic process.