Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) are associated with an increased risk of arterial and venous thromboembolism. A 2 to 3 time fold increased risk of developing thromboembolic complications was reported for IBD
patients compared to general population. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Cochrane database. The key words were: “Inflammatory Bowell Disease”, “Crohn’s Disease and Thrombosis”, “Ulcerative Colitis and Thrombosis”, “Thrombosis” and “Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Thrombosis”. Full articles and abstracts were included. Studies such as case reports, letters and commentaries were excluded from the analysis if appropriate data could not be extracted. Although no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been established to evaluate the efficacy of thromboprophylaxis in patients with IBD due to the incidence of VTE and PE in such patients, it is highly recommended the adoption of thromboprophylactic measures. Available prophylaxis and treatment options include pharmacological anticoagulant therapy (LMWH-Low Molecular Weight Heparin, Fondaparinux and UH-Unfractionated Heparin) and mechanical prophylaxis. In case of acute VTE patient must be treated with fibrinolytic agents and in selected non-responsive cases vascular surgery. IBD patients have an increased risk of VTE complications. Prophylaxis for VTE should be recommended in all patients who do not show contraindications to treatment.