Introduction. Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) is one of the most curable malignant diseases. Modern treatments, like the combined radiochemotherapy and stem cell transplantation, have increased the number of malignant disease survivors. However, HL survivors are at risk of long-term effects, including the development of solid tumors. Secondary neoplasms are a major cause of late morbidity and mortality following treatment for HL.
Case report. We report the case of a male patient, treated for HL by chemotherapy, who developed a large leiomyoma of the cecum one year after the treatment. A whole-body Magnetic Resonance (WBMRI) scan performed during the follow-up allowed the detection of this incidental caecal mass that was absent in a Computed Tomography (CT) scan performed immediately after the treatment. After a CT-guided biopsy, the lesion was surgically removed and the diagnosis of caecal leiomyoma was obtained.
Discussion. To our knowledge, this is the first case report, according to the scientific literature, of caecal leiomyoma developing after chemotherapy in a HL survivor. Leiomyoma is a rare benign tumor that usually appears as a solitary small mass with a nodular growth and a benign course.
Conclusion. This case shows that WB-MRI allows detecting relevant incidental findings during the oncologic follow-up, avoiding both radiation exposure and contrast agent administration. Furthermore, leiomyoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis between the caecal masses with high growth rate.