VOLUME 35 - NUMBER 3-4 - 2014

Endoscopic sclerotherapy for hemostasis of acute esophageal variceal bleeding

  • Romano G., Agrusa A., Amato G., De Vita G., Frazzetta G., Chianetta D., Sorce V., Di Buono G., Gullotta G.
  • Original Article, 061-064
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  • Introduction. Currently the most widely used methods for endoscopic control of esophageal varices bleeding are sclerotherapy and rubber band ligation. Although the superiority of band ligation (BL) over endoscopic sclerotherapy (SCL) for the secondary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage has been proven, the best approach for acute bleeding remains controversial.

    Patients and methods. We performed a retrospective study between January 2005 and May 2013. We selected 104 patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage from rupture of esophageal varices treated with endoscopic sclerotherapy. The sclerosing agent used was 1% polidocanol in 89 cases, butyl-cyanoacrylate in 8 cases and sodium tetradecylsulfate in 4 cases. In 3 cases had not been carried sclerosis because it was not possible to identify the bleeding site.

    Results. Among the 101 patients who underwent endoscopic sclerotherapy 4 presented re-bleeding within 12 hours from first treatment. Other 10 patients (9.9%) presented re-bleeding within a 5-days period. The most frequent complication was ulceration, observed in 4 cases (3.8%). There was only one case of perforation treated conservatively.

    Conclusions. The general improvement in the results of the treatment of variceal acute bleeding might be attributed to better clinical management of these patients. In literature no consensus exists regarding the preferred endoscopic treatment. To date, there is no single method applicable to all patients with bleeding esophageal varices, but sclerotherapy is considered effective, safe and repeatable in experienced hands.

  • KEY WORDS: Esophageal variceal bleeding - Endoscopic sclerotherapy - Endoscopy - Urgency setting.