We report a rare case of a 50 year old man with renal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who first came to our attention with renal colic and fever not responding to antibiotic or analgesic treatment. He had a long history of kidney stones, but had not undergone any imaging in the last 5 years.
Physical examination revealed tenderness and a palpable mass in the right flank and lumbar region. A whole body CT scan was performed, revealing an 11 cm mass in the right kidney infiltrating the inferior vena cava. There were areas of calcification within the mass and multiple stones within the renal pelvis. The tumor was considered unsuitable for resection according to radiological and clinical criteria. The mass was biopsied percutaneously under CT guidance and histological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. The patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and embolization of the renal artery. He died one month after diagnosis.
To our knowledge this is the second reported case in the world of renal SCC infiltrating the inferior vena cava and with kidney stones.