Background. The true aneurysms of the infrapopliteal arteries are an unusual pathology with low incidence in the general population. They appear in the literature only as isolated case reports. True aneurysms of the infrapopliteal arteries represent a surgical problem, especially when a bifurcation is involved and when the distal vessels are affected by occlusive disease.
Case report. A 67 year old man with an aneurysm which involved the tibioperoneal trunk and the origin of peroneal and posterior tibial arteries was surgical treated. At three months follow up, a duplex ultrasonography (DUS) control showed the bypass patency and the total exclusion of the aneurismal sac.
Discussion. Although the aneurysms of the infrapopliteal arteries are very uncommon and often asymptomatic, their associated vascular lesions and/or ischemic complications can lead to high risk of limb loss. When the aneurysm is large and/or symptomatic, the surgical treatment becomes mandatory. A conservative treatment and DUS follow up could be reserved to elderly patients and when the aneurysm is small and asymptomatic.