Introduction. Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare and seems to be associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, infections and immunosuppression. Their incidence has been arising since the last 25 years. Compared to adenocarcinoma of the rectum and squamous cell cancer of the anal canal, squamous cell carcinoma is a distinct entity with a different etiology, pathogenesis, prognosis and requires a different therapeutic approach. Even if surgery remains the main therapeutic option, recent advances have made chemoradiation a valuable therapeutic addition. This case discuss the efficacy of chemoradiation wich can prevent complications and can improve the quality of life.
Case report. A 63-year-old woman presented with history of bloody stool for the last past month. The colonoscopy showed a 2 cm circular lesion on the posterior wall of the anal canal. Biopsy was positive for squamous cell carcinoma and afterwards the patient underwent chemoradiation. At 1 year of follow-up the patient is disease free, with a good sphincter control and had no late complications.
Conclusion. Since the first studies in 1974, chemoradiation seems to be a good option for most patients with squamous cell carcinoma avoiding surgery.